Racism, Sexism, Communitarianism. Are Human?

Discrimination, in all its forms and expressions, is one of the most widespread abuses or violations of human rights, reaching millions of people each day. However, it is not difficult to identify. All men and women belong to the same human species but there are many differences between individuals according to age, origins, religion, gender, or social class, and by these differences men sometimes adopt inhumane behavior.

First, certain prejudices can turn into ideology and feed hate. One of these ideologies is racism. Racism describes discriminatory or violent behavior towards individuals because of their alleged “inferiority”. Indeed, at one time, a widespread belief was that there were human races within the human species, which could be distinguished on the basis of physical differences. But I think that race is nothing but an imaginary entity or a social construct because all human beings belong to the same species, and therefore it makes no sense to speak of “races”.race1.jpg

Racist ideologies have had a devastating impact on humanity: they have justified the enslavement of man by man, colonialism, apartheid, forced sterilization and the annihilation of populations. Not to mention that they nourished the Nazi ideologies as well as the programs of extermination of the Jews and other “lower peoples”.

Today, although there are few who still believe in the idea of superior races with the inherent power to exercise power over the “inferior” races, racism always has an impact and takes different forms, such as racism Cultural or ethnocentrism, the belief that certain cultures, generally his, are superior and that other cultures, traditions, customs and histories are incompatible with ours

Secondly, some men show anti-Semitism which is a hostility directed against the Jews as a minority or religious group and is often accompanied by social, economic or political discrimination. Indeed, until today anti-Semitism has been very present in European history. Jewish communities in Russia have been regularly victims rape-cartoonof pogroms, which consist of systematically discriminatory acts of violence committed by the local population, often with the passive consent or active participation of law enforcement officials, encouraged by Anti-Semitic policies of governments. But these attacks on Jews were also common in other European countries, including France and Austria. Today, anti-Semitism is still widespread in Europe, although sometimes its presence is difficult to identify or to admit. In recent years, Jewish cemeteries have been desecrated. Jews are regularly targeted for hate speech and sometimes undergo physical attacks. It is doubtless also the suffering of the Jewish people, during its history among nations, which has forged its sensitivity and its attachment to respect for human rights, freedom of thought, expression and belief.

In the end, we have sexual discrimination where women are opposed to men in workplace,image and here we aim at transgender or transsexual individuals, whose gender identity is culturally not coherent with the gender assigned to the birth. Indeed, discrimination based on sexual orientation primarily affects homosexual and bisexual people and then equality between women and men. In many parts of the world, LGBT people are subjected to various forms of violence, ranging from verbal assaults to assassinations. The practice of homosexuality remains a crime in many countries; In some cases, it is punished by prison sentences or even by capital punishment.

These LGBT people are often deprived of their human rights, 20120812-homosexuality-rlsuch as the right to work, while they are dismissed or discriminated against by their employers because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition, they are also victims of harassment (at school at a young age or at the workplace later), which constitutes a violation of their right to safety and security. In many European countries, discrimination also affects gay and lesbian couples who want to marry, to found a family or to adopt children. Today, discrimination against LGBT people still exists in all societies in Europe, although many states have adopted anti-discrimination legislation. Many of these people cannot fully enjoy their universal human rights, are exposed to hate crimes and indifference in the event of street attacks by their fellow citizens.

 

With such actions and sometimes unpleasant remarks can we affirm that we are human?? I would say yes! We are all human beings but we are sometimes not human because it takes more to affirm this. We are all doomed to discriminate against one another and have parts taken when we are all equal because it is not the color of our skin that makes us different but those of our thoughts, it is not our sexes that are Different but our mentalities. And this always tends to leave us in inhuman behavior. Instead of mocking one should learn to look for the good quality that lies in the other. Let us accept our differences.

 

“the impact of technology in society”

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In ancient times people were lit with the fire, cared for with plants and ate food saint of historical perspective. It is noted that the main stages of humanity have all been marked by scientific discoveries that improve the lives of humans and remove major constraints and difficult work. The “new technologies” mean very scalable and various fields of technology, that can equally cover the high technology in the broad sense and the narrow sense the new information technologies and communication (NTIC), the internet, smartphone etc.This technology has several advantages but beautiful and many disadvantages in society. Throughout this study, we first discuss the benefits of technology on society then we show the disadvantages.

technology has many advantages it simplifies life everyday take the example of a washing machine these days is hard to imagine how one went about washing his clothes before his invention but it was hard work almost all popular technologies ranging from the car phone to have the ultimate goal of reducing human effort then we have the second advantage is that the communication and mobility communication system between different countries is almost instantaneous.

Progress allows saving time to man but also an improvement in people to have a material comfort discover the robot removes the line work agricultural machinery removes plantations and harvest were made by hand and took forever freeing man from a very hard working discovery offers more entertainment and the opportunity to enrich their knowledge. We have two principles to understand how technology influences society: the first is that technology is a factor of social change, technological systems are the source of significant improvements in the speed, and communications have made it possible the production of information dissemination means and have reduced the physical labor of human beings.

Technology has also offered an abundance of service products all this requires people to know how to take informed consumers making. The second principle is that companies affect the course of technological development, they are historical social and cultural factors that determine if use is made of a data technology and how. Students are immersed in a more than human technology influenced by environmental responsibilities of citizens in a technological era is defined as the democratic exercise of rights on issues that affect the direction taken by their society and technological development which chooses gain certain technological culture means try to resolve the problems that lead to the individual living in a world shaped and have an influence on this world.

Although there are many advantages, there are also many disadvantages and dangers that the new technology devices can bring into our lives because people do not always make good use by using these developments in the wrong way. First we see that new technologies create inequality due to their cost! They are expensive and cannot target everyone. Technological advances also create inequalities between countries because some possess the power to destroy other states with new weapons, for example.technologie-enfantThen, on the health plan of life different electron waves cause tumors and cancers. Also for some “addicted” technology, the virtual world becomes their reality.

They can spend countless hours without seeing the risks and eventually become true slaves of these machines. The still widely discussed topic is that of violence induced games available online thanks to technology. This is an old debate that began there three or four decades with the appearance of more or less violent television series. Several meta-analyzes conducted recently seem to demonstrate an incentive effect of movies and violent games, especially in children and young adolescents. It seems reasonable to avoid exposing less than fifteen-six in this type of activity. Still, the risk of progression to aggressive acts can probably be greatly reduced by the presence of responsible adults, capable of taking their child with the emotions and reactions entailed such media.

Then we notice that most people abandon the knowledge contained in books to go to learn about Internet despite the fact that the sources are not always reliable. By advanced technology young people read less and less by what they use all the ease and lose interest to seek information through means other than electronic newspapers or Wikipedia.

And finally, we have the rate of unemployed persons as in companies that believes in factories because the robots have replaced humans.

There is the human laziness that keeps increasing. Man made and in future years will still make less and less things because it will almost always use machines.

In conclusion we say that the scientific and technical progress reflected an evolution of Western society that goes from traditional society to industrial society. These scientific and technical progress seen in many areas of life but this technology (scientific and technical progress) have advantages and disadvantages in society. In my view, technology can be an asset provided that one knows how to use and that we know differentiate the virtual world of the real. But with the level of dependency of human technology we might ask is what he really could make a limit someday?

Sources: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJjf51n6PCo

One thought on ““the impact of technology in society””

  1. Is our laziness really increasing, or is it just that it is still the same one, but always able to find other solution to doing doing things by ourselves? Y our essay is far better, the length is perfect.

The Role Of Women And Men In Society

For several years, men and women generally have their own role to fulfill. These traditional gender roles that were the norm at the time are still observed to some extent today.20070306

There are many examples of differences in the perceived roles between men and women that have led women to be discriminated against. In the past, women spent most of their adult lives producing and caring for children. Women were previously largely excluded from the workplace due to lack of education and skills. Education was limited and accessible only to men. Very few jobs were available to them. They had to marry, give up jobs if they had to take care of the husband or the family. Men, on the other hand, normally held power and all rights. At that time, they represented authority and were considered to be the heads of families, whose main source of income was the family. They were the only ones who had the right to education, to work and were also considered “superior beings”. Some people prefer a traditional configuration in which men are cared for and women serve them and most people live in societies controlled by male attitudes and values when women have been allowed to enter paid employment , Where men provide and protect while women look after the house, children and their husbands was the best.

But after the Second World War, that changed. It was more acceptable for women to work. The basis of the argument against gender roles is that it is a product of past ideas that cannot be applied to modern life.8883624_orig Men and women are created equal, despite some physical differences and therefore cannot have specific roles for men and women. This suggests that men and women with different roles in modern society can, however, perform the same functions. The revolution in gender equality that has taken place has radically changed the workplace. Thus, where women were rarely seen before, they now dominate over men, whether in areas such as corporate offices and ministries that they are now accepted. Women can play roles as well as their male counterparts. For me they are even and even already in some cases superior to their peers because the fact that women now have the opportunity to win their own feat is a plus for her as compared to men.

 

However, men also have acquired good mentality over time and we sometimes witness a role reversal in some households. Even today, the main breadwinners of most families and women generally take care of the household. There seems to be a general reluctance for men and women to change places of their traditional gender roles, living dads can take the place of Mother’s work and take responsibility for caring for a child. Household tasks are no longer considered the sole responsibility of the woman, they are more likely to be shared between the two sexes. In countries such as the United States, we have already seen this reversal of roles for some time.

Yet these roles have not been as widespread as they should have been. There are still some men who are unable to do household chores, caring for children and much more. In my opinion, woman is the key to the world, she has a leading role in society in relation to man, and for apart from her role as a housewife devoted to husband and children, she already occupies the major in the world of Work and will always have a margin of advance on him.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "rule of women"

The role of the man and the woman is still an ambiguous question today and one will certainly ask the question later. It is true that the woman was marginalized other times but with time and several struggle she knew ‘Integrated into society despite her disability (maternity) in relation to man. Today it happens to have a predominant role in imposing itself in various political, cultural and other plan … the man on his side always considered as the authority until today has also evolved deciding to help his wife in the households while remaining the chief.

the impact of religion in society

Religion is define as a set of beliefs and cultural practices that underpin relations between people and the sacred. Today, France has about 480,000 Jews, more than 4.5 million Muslims and about 38 million Christians, while the “no-religions” represent 35% of the population.      Currently, religion is a very controversial subject in France. Since 1905, year of the separation of church and state, the debates on beliefs have not stopped. Different places of worship are not entitled to any subsidy from the state, wearing ostentatious signs in public places is prohibited, and the veil hiding the entire face is also prohibited in public areas. Symboles de religions Image stock     Catholicism remains for its majority in France, but the practice diminishes more and more. Yet it is inscribed in the French culture and the environment. However, in principle, when the French government census does not ask questions about religious affiliation, but institutes such as the INSEE and INED may conduct studies on religious practice in France.       Despite secularism, many believers continue to refute some laws adopted in France, as abortion or gay marriage.       We will study the influences of the major religions in France on the company from 1900.
How religions they have an influence on French society from 1900 to today?
First, we analyze the impact of these beliefs on culture. And secondly, we study the influence of religion on politiqueles family behavior. Finally, we will see what the impact of religion on medicine.

The influence of beliefs about culture and family behavior

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In Frances Catholic families traditionally have more children than others. The standard is there to this day while many religious practice demoted? Other religions such as Islam in particular are growing because of immigration.
Those who did they also practice the more children than the average?

-Religious practice

In France, Religious practice has weakened over generations.
More and more people declare themselves non-practicing.
Catholicism was the dominant religion in France for a long time, but since 9 December 1905 the French government became a secular state. After the fervor for religion decreases, particularly for Catholicism but remained majority over other religions. In 2006, 65% of French people declared themselves Catholics, but people who admit to being Catholics are fewer practitioners and a growing fraction of the population claims no religion. The second religion of France is Islam, it comes in a variety of expressions, Islam represents 6% of the population or 5 million Muslims in France, these Muslims are important to the culture and society French.

Agnosticism is increasing. The number of people identifying with no religion (more than 25% of French) increases, particularly among young people. However, to say “no religion” does not necessarily mean that one feels atheist or that one is not interested in issues called “spiritual.” Moreover, this trend does not stop the progression of parallel forms of diffuse or sectarian sacredness.

There is also Protestantism which represents 2% of the population or 1.2 million people, including 350,000 Evangelicals and Pentecostals. As the “historical Christendom” include about 750 000 people around the Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church and the various Eastern Churches.
Followers of Buddhism is estimated at 400,000.
Atypical religious movements are experiencing a certain vitality, as Jehovah’s Witnesses, who claim the number of 140,000.
And finally Judaism, which has about 600 000 people, who are mainly of Sephardic origin following the arrival in France of North African Jews in the sixties. A strong movement of renewal of identity, studies and practice marks the French Judaism.

regular practice is said of a religion strengthens with age, is more common in women and foreigners, but does not depend on social status. Saprogression from 1987 that is sensitive in the elderly. The share of people declaring no religious practice or sense of belonging has also evolved, especially among the young.
France is the European country with the largest number of Muslims, Jews and Buddhists. But the 3 major religions in France are Judaism, Islam and Christianity, which are all three monotheistic religions.

 

Age may influence the religious affiliation 5% of men and 3% of women aged 65 to 79 years say belong to any religion, so respectively 27 and 23% of 18-24 years.
The decline of religion is accompanied by a redistribution of confessions.
People who claim to have a religion, 95% of 65-79 years say they are Catholics against 88% of 18-24 year olds, particularly the Muslim religion is increasingly represented (less than 2% of 65-79 years against 7% 18-24).
In 2005, about 35 million of 18-79 years (80%) therefore as original religion or membership of Catholicism, a little over 2 million (5%) claim to be Muslims, 900,000 (2 %) and Protestants 800 000 (2%) of another denomination; 5 million (11%) say they have no religion.

Comparing family behavior and religious practice in four subpopulations:
– People “without religion” declaring no religion;
– “Non-practicing”, reporting no practical but with reported origin religion or membership;
– “Least assiduous practitioners” with a religious affiliation and practice below the median practice of their generation (taking account of gender);
– “The most assiduous practitioners” with a religious affiliation and practice greater than or equal to the median practice of their generation (taking account of gender).

The practice among those who say religion is lower at younger ages than at older ages: for 65-79 years, 68% of men and 55% of women claiming to belong to a religion say never “attend religious services” (apart from weddings, baptisms and funerals) against 18-24 years was 85 and 80%. And attendance is lower among practitioners: 12% for men and 20% for women 65-79 years old who attend religious services more than twice a month against 3 and 4% to 18-24.
Besides also the fact that practicing Catholics vote more to the right (39% for the UMP and 12.9% for the center-right) as their fellow citizens.visible-and-invisible

Any religious practice of the younger generation is that adherence to religion is more individual and less a matter of social conformity, so it requires less external manifestation.
Religious practice reinforces a certain age in the elderly, by against young adults are less and less concerned about religion so fewer practitioners in France.

-family behavior
In the past, marriage was often broken by the death of a spouse by divorce or separation.
The second were rare and the majority of failures were quite late.

     In 2005, among elderly persons who lived with a partner at least once from 65 to 79 years only one in ten (11% of men and 9% of women) reported having experienced a second union against one in four among the 45 to 49.
Marriage remains a necessity and often a lifetime commitment; it remains the framework within which children are born and childless marriages are rare.
Offspring, higher than average, even increased in recent generations. In contrast, those reporting no religion reject marriage more than others and experience more marital journey complex; their infertility is increasing and their offspring is often restricted.
There are now 40, it was rare that the spouses live together before marriage (only one marriage in ten).
The attachment to religion is associated with a lower frequency of premarital cohabitation (see doc3). Premarital cohabitation is less common among people practicing a religion other than Catholicism, especially the Muslim religion among the most practicing Catholics, 75% have lived together before marriage. It is increasingly common also to live together without getting married. In 2005, among people aged 65 to 79 years having previously lived with couples only 2% have never been married, against 18% of men and 15% of women aged 45 to 49 years. These proportions differ greatly according to the attachment to religion: only 6% of men and 7% of the women practitioners are not married, then that is the case for about a fifth of people furthest from religion (no religion and non-practicing).

In 2012, a debate on marriage for all was stirred public opinion.
On 29 June 2012, the Minister for Family, Dominique Bertinotti, announced that a law allowing marriage and adoption to gay couples will be voted in 2013. In November 2012, Christiane Taubira has in Cabinet Bill . On 2 February 2013, Article 1 of the bill, opening marriage to same-sex couples is adopted. The Assembly adopted the text at first reading. On 23 April 2013, the project is finally adopted by Parliament despite numerous protests by opponents: all religions are opposed to marriage for all.
Religions are also opposed to contraception: Islam, Judaism and Christianity prohibit.
By 1970, less than a first born in five (18%) of unmarried parents, against one in two by 2000. The proportion exceeds two thirds among those claiming to be without religion, half among those without stating a the practice, the third in less assiduous practitioners and does not reach one third in most practitioners. However, even among these, the proportion has greatly risen since the 1970s, premarital cohabitation time is extended and marriage occurs more often after birth of first child. 7-8% of people 65 to 79 years who lived in couple does not have children, this whatever their attachment to religion. The next 45-49 years, the proportion ranges from 5% for most practitioners, 5% of those who practice little, and 12% for those without religion. For more practitioners, high fertility is not a new phenomenon (see Figure 4). Men who practice more and having lived with a partner at least once had on average 0.3 to 0.4 more children than others. This specificity is mainly due to the influence of religions other than Catholicism, the most practicing Catholics finally with similar descendants of those who practice little. Unlike women, most practitioners are detached from religion over time. Since the generations born in the 1950s, their offspring has even increased, especially among Catholics only.
There are twenty years, investigations showed that the contraceptive behaviors were somewhat related to the attachment to religion, however, for fertility in women as and as religious practice scarce, family values appear pervasively present in the minority of women who still practice.
Note that Catholicism is the dominant religion in France, is one that most fertile and whose marriages are the most numerous. So we can say that although the country is secular, Catholicism plays an important role in society.

The influence of religion on politics

Religions have always influenced society. One of the first topics is influenced politics. France is a secular state, that is to say, it does not recognize the “state religion”. The state is separated from the clergy, and he must therefore show neutral towards religious denominations. Many laws have been introduced over the years, the issue of religion becoming increasingly present in our daily lives. During elections, candidates always give their position vis-à-vis to the attitude to adopt beliefs, this creating many controversies, but it also directs individuals of certain denominations to certain political parties.
How Does religion influence politics?

-Laicity

Secularism as it is in France does not exist anywhere else: it comes from the troubled history of relations between the Church and the Republic. Companies are increasingly multi-faith, yet she seems destined for a bright future. The beginnings of secularism appeared in 1789, in the Declaration of human rights and citizen. Article 10 proclaims religious freedom, “No one should be harassed for his opinions, even religious (…)”. In 1791, the Constitution establishes freedom of worship. Secularism is in discussions for several decades. In July 1901, the Law on Associations limit the influence of religious congregations in education. Catholic congregations must request authorization.
The 1958 Constitution implies that the French Republic is secular without more than the equality of citizens before the law without distinction of religion, adding the respect of all beliefs. We can define secularism as a political conception in which the state does not exercise religious authority while religions have no political power. Long time, and still today, secularism was mistaken for a fight against religion, because of the conflict environment when the law was passed to separation of state and church. Today, religions, except for a small minority fundamentalist movements are fully satisfied with the principles of secularism. However, the state must exercise control to enforce them.
In 1902 lorsqu’Emile Combes is Chairman of the Board, he shut unauthorized Catholic congregations, causing a wave of protest of the bishops. In July 1904 held a rupture of diplomatic relations between France and the Vatican, caused by the fact that no more Congregationalist has the right to teach. The law of separation of church and state appears in December 1905: “The Republic ensures freedom of conscience guarantees freedom of worship but not recognize, pay for, not subsidize any”. This means that the French state had no official religion and is not involved in their operation. From 1906 to 1907 held the conflict of inventories: Inventories shrines property provoke protests parishes. The left is divided into two: the radical left, wishing to eliminate religion, and the moderate left to the freedom of conscience. Just as the right: the radicals reject the separation and the moderates are trying to mitigate the effects of this separation.
In January 1907 is introduced a new law on membership of religious buildings: more than 30,000 buildings are made available to churches. Between 1914 and 1918, relations with the Vatican are restored. Many congregations come back because they are tolerated by the authorities. At the end of the war, Alsace-Moselle returns to France, their school legislation is maintained. When the law separating Church and State was promulgated in 1905, the departments of Alsace and Moselle were still German (since 1871). The German power did not change the status of the Concordat of 1801, which under the First Empire defined the relationship between the State and the Church. After the return of the three departments in France in 1918, this status was maintained and is still in effect today despite attempts to abolish. The state pays and appoints the leaders of Catholic worship, Protestant and Jewish.
In 1924 involved a coalition of socialists and radicals in parliamentary elections. The “Cartel of the left” enjoying success. Secular laws are cured, but the bishops mobilize Catholics, creating a new force to the Church. In 1936, secular leagues experiencing triumph circular Jean Zay prohibit all forms of proselytism, political or religious school. In 1940, under the Vichy regime, held a cancellation of most secular conquests, followed by a law of March 1941 with the same goal. The State therefore subsidizes private schools. During the Fourth Republic, so from 1945 to 1958 the Constitution states that “France is a Republic, one and indivisible, secular, democratic and social.” The secular term appears for the first time in an official text in the Constitution of 1946: “France is a secular republic” and “the organization of public education, free and secular at all levels is a duty of State. “The Constitution of the Fifth Republic adds” The Republic shall respect all beliefs. ” Regarding Guyana, French department since 1946, it is still run by a royal decree of 1828 and the priests are permanent staff of the department.
Democrats, Christians Fund of the Popular Republican Movement and socialist work. Attempts quiet negotiations between the Vatican and France held under Guy Mollet, President of the Council and the Socialist Party. In 1959, the Debré law grants public subsidies to private schools under contract, an outcry among secular leagues. From 1962 to 1965 held the Second Vatican Council. The advances of the Catholic Church on matters of morals and theology open a period of appeasement with the French anticlerical. The Savary Bill, Minister of the Government of National Education Mauroy, was voted in 1984. It aims to unite public education and private schools in one of the national education system. Advocates of religious schools and the simple freedom of choice rally at an event on 24 June in Paris. They are more than a million to demonstrate, causing the withdrawal of the law and the government fell.
The first case concerning the sailing takes place in 1989: a main of Creil college denies access to the property of Muslim students wearing the Islamic veil. “Circular Jospin”, the name of the Minister of National Education of the time, is opposed to the headscarf. The second veil affair takes place in 1993-1994: the “Circular Bayrou” opposes the wearing of religious signs “ostentatious” in public institutions, making the difference with “discreet” symbols that can be worn in class. The third case takes place in 2003-2004. The Stasi Report on secularism entails voting, in March 2004, a law banning the wearing of conspicuous religious symbols in schools and other institutions of the Republic. The relevant religious symbols are the kippa, large cross and the Islamic veil. However, the law allows the port of discrete symbols.

In September 2013, Vincent Peillon, Minister of Education, made known the first secularism charter school. This charter should be visible in the public schools: primary schools, secondary schools. It contains 15 points. She recalled that France is a secular republic, freedom of conscience, access to a common, shared culture, the personal duty of neutrality of education and banning the wearing of ostentatious signs.

-The vote

Besides having an influence on the laws, religion also has an impact on the vote. Indeed, all political candidates should give their opinion and program on religion. Which can lead individuals to certain beliefs to different candidates.
France 24 conducted a study to try to measure the influence of religion on political beliefs.
Religious affiliation plays a good role in voting, “much more than social class,” says Claude Dargent, researcher Cevipof (Centre for Political Research at Sciences Po).
In France, the Catholics are the majority in the electorate (57.2%), followed by Muslims (5%), Protestants (2%) and Jews (0.6%). However, people declaring “no religion” not less than 30% of voters.
To measure the impact of religion on the political choices of French, France 24 interviewed several individuals of different faiths, two Catholics, two Jews and two Muslims, each claiming to be the UMP or the Socialist Party. The same question was posed to them: what is the weight of your religion in your political beliefs. Claude Dargent is the author reports on the Muslim vote and the vote of Catholics in France
According to Claude Dargent, Muslims are more likely to enroll on the electoral register. They represented 5% of the electorate in 2007, against 0.7% in 1997. This increase is mainly due to French immigrant turning more towards Islam. The faith community is moving rather left: 95% of Muslims voted for Ségolène Royal against 5% for Nicolas Sarkozy in the second round of the presidential election of 2007.
The proof is that three-quarters of the Muslim electorate are among the popular classes (workers and employees in majority), but their vote does not reflect that of the latter, which divide rather between left, right and far right. We can deduce that the vote of Muslims is oriented to the left because of their religious affiliation, not social class.
Claude Dargent also focused on the Catholic vote. He found that for several years, practicing Catholics voted five to six times to the right of voters declaring “no religion”. In the first round of the 2007 presidential election, 49% of practicing Catholics we voted for Nicolas Sarkozy, against 12% for Ségolène Royal. however we see that this faith community is not attracted by the extreme right. In 2007, Jean-Marie Le Pen, National Front candidate, had done her worst score among practicing Catholics.
As for François Bayrou, candidate of the modem, only 14% of practicing Catholics showed themselves susceptible to his arguments in 2007, while he is yet coming from the Christian Democratic movement.
Claude Dargent notes that the electoral weight of Jews being less than 1%, the vote of this faith community is very difficult to study. He however explained that this is a strong vote left, with some evidence, however, showing that a part of this electorate was seduced by Nicolas Sarkozy in 2007.
In terms of the Protestant vote, Claude Dargent said that historically, they predominantly vote left. This trend is however mitigated by the turn of the twenty-first century.
Claude Dargent says the religious vote is “about values before it is a question of challenges.”
Election candidates take into account the institutional representation of different faiths, making regular visits to different faiths. The interior minister is also minister of worship. We studied the programs of both political parties, the National Front and the Left Front about religion.
In 2012, the National Front denounced a communitarianism promoting “the extension of foreign lifestyles French civilization and strong political movements to establish the supremacy of a religion or religious law.” This particular political party accuses the “Islamic fundamentalism”, which they “imposes its law with the aim of applying Sharia law in France.” The National Front denounced an “Islamist pressure,” influencing the shops, schools, public places, hospitals. He also said that communal politics denies the fundamental principles of secularism, as some places of worship would be subsidized with public money, “through scabrous legal arrangements”. Thus the national front the program about religion was based on these points: the inclusion in the Constitution that “the Republic does not recognize any community” and the establishment of a “Ministry of the Interior of Immigration and Secularism “.
The Left Front indicates that secularism is “a pillar of the Republic, one and indivisible, living and bearer principle of inalienable rights guaranteed to every member of society.” This party wants no religion is “blacklisted the pretext of secularism as does the National Front regularly about the Muslim religion.” The Left Front states in its program reaffirm the merits and relevance of the 1905 law on secularism: all subsequent amendments to that law affecting these principles will be repealed. No public funding should only be granted to the construction of new private schools or renovation of existing ones. The Left Front wants to defend secularism in the European institutions, and refuse public funding of religions.
We can conclude that despite the principle of secularism established in 1905, religion still has an influence on French politics.